Richard Drdla Associates: NATIONAL HOUSING STRATEGY: Inclusionary Zoning – Domestic and International Practices; CMHC; December 2016.
This paper examines inclusionary zoning and related inclusionary housing policies as practised in the four countries: the US, England, Canada and Australia. In addition to a detailed review of those practices, it provides an overview highlighting their main similarities and differences, and also summarizes some of the key lessons for Canada that can be drawn from this experience. Read the Report
The purpose of the study is to help policy makers to understand better how IZ affects real estate development and how to use development incentives most effectively. To set a context for that, it also provides a brief overview of the economics of real estate development, and the key determinants of feasibility for real estate development from a developer’s perspective. Read the Report
This paper reviews the current thinking and research on the effectiveness and impact of IZ programs. Included is an examination of five factors thought to be associated with successful programs. Read the Report
This report provides an overall review of the current thinking about inclusionary zoning practices in the US. Drawing extensively upon recent research and studies, it includes chapters on designing a program, understanding the economics, preparing for administration and other key topics. Read the report
This paper reviews the results of a survey of roughly 50 programs across the US looking at their production, duration, and provisions – including setaside requirements, compliance alternatives, regulatory concessions, affordability limits and others. Read the paper.
This study, through an analysis of the impact of 11 representative inclusionary programs across the US, examines who these programs have benefitted, and how well they have fostered social inclusiveness. Read the report
This paper puts forward and explores using inclusionary housing programs as a way of explicitly recapturing for the public benefit some part the gain in land value resulting from public decisions to re-zone land, and now going unearned to the land owners. Read the paper.
This major study, funded by the National Association of Home Builders in the US, used advanced statistical techniques to examine the impact of inclusionary zoning programs across California on the price, production, and size of housing over the period 1988-2005. Read this report. Read a precis.
Vicki Been, et al.: The Effects of Inclusionary Zoning on Local Housing Markets: Lessons from the San Francisco, Washington DC and Suburban Boston Areas; Furman Center for Real Estate & Urban Policy, Working Paper 07-05, November 2007.
This major study examined the impact of inclusionary zoning programs on the price and production of market-rate housing in three major metropolitan areas where they are widely used — Boston, San Francisco, and Washington DC. The findings are based upon a rigourous statistical analysis of the building data and house prices for single-family homes in these areas for the 1980-2005 period. Read the report. Read a precis.
This report presents the key findings of the 2006 comprehensive survey of inclusionary housing practices in California. Read the report
This paper examines the administrative measures used in the US to protect the affordability of the affordable units produced through inclusionary zoning programs. Read the paper.
This paper sets out a set of recommended principles, jointly agreed both by these non-profit and builders organizations, that should be incorporated in inclusionary zoning programs in order to enhance their effectiveness in producing affordable units. Read the report.
This speech highlights the key lessons that should be considered in order to create and implement an effective inclusionary zoning program. Read the speech.
This paper describes and examines the inclusionary zoning programs in the five large cities of Boston, San Francisco, San Diego, Sacramento and Denver. Read the paper.
This paper sets out the evidence and examines why mandatory inclusionary programs are more productive than voluntary ones. Read the paper.
This report examines new construction permit data from 1981 to 2001 in 28 Californian cities to determine impact of inclusionary zoning programs on the production of market housing. Read the paper
This report draws upon the findings of a comprehensive state-wide survey of inclusionary housing practices to examine how inclusionary housing has evolved in California. Read the report.
This paper explores the benefits of inclusionary zoning in large cities, and provides brief case studies of the five programs in Boston, San Francisco, San Diego, Denver and Sacramento. Read the paper.
This report examines and debunks eight common criticisms of mixed-income housing. Read the paper.
This paper compares mandatory and voluntary programs, and examines why mandatory programs are more productive. Read the paper.
This paper identifies the benefits of inclusionary zoning, and examines its impact on the production of market housing. Read the report
This paper draws a distinction between affordable housing policies and inclusionary zoning policies, and sets out the key components of an effective inclusionary zoning policy. Read the paper.
This report examines the affordable housing mandates that have been used in the US and Canada to provide for affordable housing. It focuses principally on the demanding mandates in New Jersey, California, and Massachusetts, but also looks at others in British Columbia, Ontario, and elsewhere. Under the best of these mandates, municipalities are obliged to use the planning regulations and development approval process to provide for affordable housing in affirmative and effective ways that go well beyond the “good planning” practices seen in Canada. Read the report.